Sunday, February 26, 2017

Random Smiles

A little girl asked her mother, "How did the human race appear?" The mother answered, "God made Adam and Eve and they had children and so was all mankind made." Two days later the girl asked her father the same question. The father answered, "Many years ago there were monkeys from which the human race evolved." The confused girl returned to her mother and said, "Mom, how is it possible that you told me the human race was created by God, and Dad said they developed from monkeys?" The mother answered, "Well, dear, it is very simple: I told you about my side of the family and your father told you about his."

A young lady came home from a date, rather sad. She explained to her mother, “Anthony proposed to me an hour ago.” “Then why are you so sad?” her mother asked. “Because he also told me he is an atheist. Mom, he doesn't even believe there's a Hell!”
Her mother replied, “Marry him anyway. Between the two of us, we'll show him how wrong he is.”

Never laugh at your wife's choices... you're one of them.

There are two sides to every question: my side and the wrong side.

99 percent of lawyers give the rest a bad name.

Always remember you're unique, just like everyone else.

God must love the common people, he made so many of them

Every man/woman should marry – After all, happiness is not the only thing in life.

Anger is like drinking poison and expecting the other person to die.

Hard work never killed anybody, but why take a chance?

When wearing a bikini, women reveal 90 % of their body... men are so polite they only look at the covered parts.

Team work is greatly desirable; you can always put the blame on someone else.

I work to buy a car to go to work.

Remember, everyone seems normal until you get to know them...

PA" "Yes."
WILLIE" "Teacher says we're here to help others."
PA" "Of course we are."
WILLIE " "Well, what are the others here for?"

Sherlock Holmes and Dr Watson are on a camping trip.
In the middle of the night, Holmes nudges Watson awake, and says, "Watson, look up at the sky and tell me what you see."
"I see millions of stars, my dear Holmes."
"And what do you infer from these stars?"
"Well, a number of things," he says, lighting his pipe:
Astronomically, I observe that there are millions of galaxies and billions of stars and planets.
Astrologically, I observe that Saturn is in Leo.
Horologically, I deduce that the time is approximately a quarter past three.
Meteorologic-ally, I expect that the weather will be fine and clear.
Theologically, I see that God is all-powerful, and man, his creation, small and insignificant.
What about you, Holmes?"
"Watson, you fool. Someone has stolen our tent!"

Why people demand freedom of speech?
As a compensation for the freedom of thought which they might have to use, otherwise.'

'A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely rearranging their prejudices.'

Six year old Kid looking at Mom's ID card...
He laughs...
Mom : Whats so funny ?
Kid : Mom, you don’t know sex, You Failed!


Friday, February 24, 2017


 is about the 'race problem'. In the beginning itself the book predicts "the real Armageddon to come within th e present decade, will be a conflict between Christians and Mohammedans, the latter to be aided by the Mongolians and the extreme radicals of Europe," mentioning that the real reasons for wars are racial traditions and aspirations. It talks of the formation of united states with "a popular superstition that a special Providence takes care of idiots, infants and the United States,” perhaps alluding certain complacency. Thereafter, the consideration the negro received from the south, which still wanted to look at him as dependent, and north, which wanted to give negro  social positions for which, he was in no sense prepared. How the negro got sympathy and affection in the south, but with hardly any opportunities, and how they found many opportunities in the north, but with no sympathy or affection.
The next chapters study this in psychological and historical planes. What progress have been achieved in economic, educational and religious spheres of life. Closely following this is an assessment of the material contributions from the black. Outstanding achievers of this race comes next. Wistar Gibbs, business man, lawyer and the first Negro judge ever elected in the United States, Amanda Smith, a colored woman, an evangelist in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and John H Murphy of Baltimore, editor and publisher of The Afro American, one of the greatest of Negro publications are only some of the ones discussed. 
Blacks' historical loyalty is then examined. "No Negro ever struck down a president of the United States. No Negro ever sold a military map or secret to a foreign government. No Negro ever ran under fire or lost an opportunity to serve, to fight, to bleed and to die in the Republic’s cause. Accuse us of what you will, justly or wrongly," not disloyalty.  How amalgamation of the two races, of the colored race in America and the white race, though repellent to many, is in progress, another chapter describes. The book comes to an end by heralding, "that full understanding, permanent co-operation and eternal brotherhood between the black and the white races in America will obtain in the future."
This perhaps is, more than a good theoretical study, a reflection of the days to come. Most data in this regard points to USA gradually warming up to the idea of a Black and White union. For example, a 2013 survey( shows 96 percent of Blacks are okay with inter-racial marriages, as well as 84 percent of Whites. With better material standards in life, I think our outlook towards race problem is bound to mellow.

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

What made us Human?

Presently, humanity is considered as an idea that can be defined by a single well-defined trait or group of traits and that a single stage in evolution was a crucial turning point on the inevitable road to Homo sapiens, which discounts possibility of continued evolution. But, the idea of a defining turn on the inevitable road to Homo sapiens is a possibility. Certain facet of human nature would have been responsible for all that we see as the distinctive elements of human race.
I am of the opinion that there has to be a driving force behind evolution, just as there is something to promote whatever life does. For example, hunger promotes eating, or, fear promotes shelter, and there in nothing in nature, where there is nothing to promote. We need to look for a driving force, which will be the one responsible for making us behave the way we behave.
So, how did we acquire humanness? I mean erect posture and bipedal locomotion; manual dexterity and increased tool use, compared to other animals; and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.  What enabled our ancestor species to, create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, like families, kinship networks, and political states, start social interactions between themselves, establish an extremely wide variety of values, social norms, and rituals, which together form the basis of human society?
Most common answers pointed to changes in living circumstances, all answers pointing to external influence. Like access to food surplus, domestication of animals, and the use of metal tools, leading to the formation of permanent human settlements. 
Further search for this driving force culminated in my book, The Unsure Male. As I explain in that book, rather than an external force, what led us to the path of acquiring distinctive marks is our own volition. We are greatly enamored by the irrational, and are constantly in its search. Many of our escapades turn out to be rational later, which routinely lead to great names, and great ideas. A few of those ideas from our distant past still remain, causing consternation at will, especially as the original environment where such ideas would have been of help is no more present. (Now also we are behind the irrational, but that, rather than consternation, it leads to great inventions regularly)
What caused us to choose this path, for whatever reason? Yes. It is the ability of humans to substitute one’s needs, desires, and fulfillment with real or abstract things. We mastered the art of using this talent to suit to one’s convenience, unlike all other species of life. Which I think, is what can be called the distinctive human quality.

Monday, February 20, 2017

New Hub

Published a hub about Some Theories of How We Became Human, and Why None of Them Need be Correct

Sunday, February 19, 2017

Book Review:Introduction to Sociology

‘Introduction to Sociology’ by Dr. Ron J. Hammond introduces sociology as the science of societies.
Why did one thinker of recent times find a need for a new science of sociology? Societies had change in unprecedented ways and had formed a new collective of social complexities that the world had never witnessed before. Western Europe was transformed by the Industrial Revolution, a technological development of knowledge and manufacturing that began in the late 1600s and continued until the early 1900s. Industrial Revolution brought some rather severe social conditions which included: deplorable city living conditions; crowding; crime; extensive poverty; inadequate water and sewage; early death, frequent accidents, and high illness rates. The new social problems required a new science.
In the first chapter, the book examines the relevance and growth of sociology as a branch of human knowledge. Its history from the pioneers like Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, and other exponents of England, USA and Europe is traced. Next, the two distinct types of theories are introduced. Namely, the Grand Theory, which include Conflict, Functionalism, Symbolic Interactions’, and Social Exchange Theories, and the Middle-Range Theory, which include Continuity, Activity, Differential Association, and labeling theories.
Next chapter discuss sociological imagination. If psychology enabled understanding of self-esteem, economics gave us the understanding of supply and demand, political science gave us the understanding of polling; sociology gives us a framework for understanding our social world that far surpasses any common sense notion we might derive from our limited social experiences. Discussion then turns to sociological theories, the core and underlying strength of the discipline. Sociologists’ strive for objectivity and the ability to study and observe without distortion or bias, especially personal bias, leads us to scientific sociology. Culture, as part of human social experience is discussed thereafter.
The process of socialization that takes place since birth is discussed. This is followed by other natural topics. The formation of human society with the propensity to make groups, and the deviations to this norm is also analyzed. And how that leads to criminal tendencies. Education and money, stratification of or society, issues of race and minorities, problems particular to the old –senescence, which is the social, emotional, biological, intellectual, and spiritual processes associated with aging, the continuously evolving family structure, the media and it’s societal functions, the prevalence of rape, and demographic studies are some of the topics discussed thereafter.
I think this book examines the science of society in the changing environment, especially with the current trends in view. Author’s portrayal of sociological issues and the society’s response is both academic and realistic. All the discussions are to the point and easy to assimilate. However, when it comes to the issues involving women, like rape and FGM, both discussed here at length, the assessment that the earlier one is due to man’s attachment to power, anger, selfishness, and sadism, as well as the conclusion that the latter is owing to tribal, religious, or, traditional forces, are not supported by sufficient proof or analysis (more than abstract reasoning).

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Saturday, February 18, 2017

Book Review: The Stupider Sex

'The Stupider Sex'
by Elizabeth and Roland Ratface is a running argument between Roly and Liz on wide ranging variety of issues, questions one frequently does encounter in life. Starting with a curling iron, the authors explore the whole lot of experiences, a couple can possibly exposed to. Quite natural they are, when they describe the silliness in the other's response to each and every situation, a providential opportunity to learn which sex is stupider. This study is all the more worthwhile because it highlights the very essence of why men and women go so well together. Each is a unique creature, and with widely different views.

The book is beautifully summarized at the end. "Simply put, men and women need to be patient with each other, and stop criticizing each other. Both genders need to stop saying and implying that the other gender is stupid, and instead to patiently LISTEN and try to understand each other. And even if understanding is not fully accomplished, men and women should at least respect each other's right to differ, and not be too insistent that the other change their thinking."

As I have observed in all the books I have read on such topics, this book also does not give a unique reason behind the distinctive differences between men and women. though it provides a good picture of it.

Friday, February 17, 2017


POSITIVE THINKING AND THE MEANING OF LIFE, by MARCUS FREESTONE, is an interesting book. It deals with one of the most popular topics of contemporary interest, if the proliferation of titles is something to go by. Author begins by examining the process of decision making, and the roles played by our conscious and subconscious brains. How can brain act in conjunction with the patterns we perceive, both real and imaginary, are then discussed. After describing some more esoteric aspects exclusively of of humans, like the ability of our brain to hold two polar opposite, totally contradictory thoughts at once, author goes into another popular aspect of our thinking. The sentence “You're either with us or against us”, exemplify it, which can be mentioned as one of the biggest problems facing us today. Our propensity to reach conclusions.
The book ends with an interesting observation. "There are only two things in the universe – physical matter and abstract metaphysical concepts... mind and consciousness themselves are unnecessary metaphysical abstractions. Existence, or the universe, is neither meaningful nor meaningless, it just is. Meaning, purpose, coincidence, reason are all metaphysical concepts we have invented. WHY questions are null and void, things just are... Therefore, there is no meaning of life. Life is merely our word for the state we find ourselves in."
I am not able to say that the book provides anything like a final answer. But, it triggered my thought. Just like quantum theory which introduces the element of chance in all things of the physical world, the book I think is introducing such concepts to the living world. The author surely has some points.

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

Book Review: Essays of Schopenhauer

I am so impressed by his other book, I badly wanted to read another one. Essays of Schopenhauer is the one I could get hold of. As the translator Mrs. Rudolf Dircks says,  this is a valuable criticism of life by a man who possess a wide experience of life, a man of the world, who held an almost inspired faculty of observation. After a short commentary on the writing style of these essays, the essayist starts by examining writing; the motivation for authors in general, contrasting different incentives to this occupation. He has a word of caution though, "Just as neglect of dress betrays contempt for the society in which a man moves, so does a hasty, careless, and bad style show shocking disrespect for the reader", who then may decide "not to read the book".
On 'reading', Schopenhauer comes with a not so complimentary view. " read in every spare moment, and to read constantly, is more paralyzing to the mind than constant manual work, which, at any rate, allows one to follow one’s own thoughts. Just as a spring, through the continual pressure of a foreign body, at last loses its elasticity, so does the mind if it has another person’s thoughts continually forced upon it."
This is followed by reflections on "the emptiness of existence". Here examining life both as a road going uphill and downhill, he finds existence as an interval free from pain, which was immediately followed by boredom, which gives rise to fresh needs. Something more comic than tragic.
He is quite sexist while handling the next essay, On Women. "The nobler and more perfect a thing is, the later and slower is it in reaching maturity. Man reaches the maturity of his reasoning and mental faculties scarcely before he is eight-and-twenty; woman when she is eighteen; but hers is reason of very narrow limitations." This is followed by a dialogue on religions that examines the different religions of the world, especially how its two faces, one of truth and one of deceit, serves to feed the needs. While discussing happiness, he lays stress on the need to view things from a distance. As one goes near we tend to envy the position of others. Some more such topics follow, like suicide,or metaphysics of love.
As I expected, all of his opinions triggers a spate of reflective effort, in addition to being different from the popular. The author forced me to think at every phrase or expression. For example, who can fail to notice the novelty of the view that it "is worth while to observe everybody attentively; even if they are not worth talking to." Because, as "the tongue only speaks the thoughts of one man, while the face expresses a thought of nature", there will be much to learn.

Monday, February 13, 2017

Book Review: On Human Nature

'On Human Nature' by Arthur Schopenhauer covers the topics of Human Nature, Government, Free-Will and Fatalism, Character, Moral Instinct, and Ethical Reflections. The book begins by noting the significant difference between things and life, more than external significance, what separates life is its internal significance. How one needs to be very careful in identifying virtue or naming vice. For example, Diligence, Obedience, Justice and Humility can become an instrument of virtue; also the servant of the greatest villainy.
I liked the observation, with which the book begins. "When philosophers are called upon to explain those simple relations of human life which make up the substance of this right, such as Right and Wrong, Property, State, Punishment and so on, they have recourse to the most extravagant, abstract, remote and meaningless ideas." As can be expected, the ideas presented in this book, about, the nature and formation and necessity of governments, free-will fatalism, character, etc., dwell more on the practical necessity and relevance of these concepts for human life rather than  an abstract discussion. For example, "State is needed in human life, since 'wrong is the order of the day'. Or the reflections on honour, "Although the principle of honour is something which distinguishes man from the lower animals, it is not, in itself, anything that raises him above them". It is just a good excuse for tolerating something inconvenient.
I find this book, unlike the works of all philosophers I have read, rather than giving a finality of an answer, prompts serious reflections.

Sunday, February 12, 2017

Proof, Again!

Interesting to read a president describing immigrants as rapists, drug dealers, and other criminals, adding that "some, I assume, are good people." Most of the commentators termed this as irrational, adding another proof to my theory, that we are getting into 'the age of the irrational'. And I'm sure, many more such proofs are going to follow this, also in addition, even more from every corner of the world.

Saturday, February 11, 2017

Book Review:Off Your Face

Off Your Face: A snappy guide to the fun art of face reading, by Julie Ihle, makes one ready to 'Face Facts – What Your Face Reveals'. The book acquaints us about the relationship between personality and facial features, while going ahead with a crisp discussion on the various features, every face hides. Thereafter, the five common shapes like round face, oval face, and others are discussed. The windows of the soul, the eyes are considered, demarcating between them based on their shape and other features. Now comes the nose, which is shown to hide many appealing aspects of every individual, as well as, some not so desirable traits. What can hide in our lips, and what lies between the lips and the nose, is then described. Whether earlobes or our hair styles, eyebrows or our cheeks, no part of our face is free of how we feel.
I found this quite interesting. May be I like to ogle, but this book has given me enough reasons to do so - there are far too many distinctive features on every face, to fill my curiosity for many days to come.

Friday, February 10, 2017

Book Review: The Little Book of Cliches

'The Little Book of Clich├ęs - From everyday idioms to Shakespearian sayings' by
Alison Westwood is a friendly book.

This small book won't leave one high and dry. It contain enough phrases to tide over any hiatus on account of cliches expressions. Which can make the remarks we use, memorable and entertaining. Grouped under Animal inanities, Biblical biddings, Roman remarks, Shakespearian sayings, Nautical nuggets, and Miscellaneous maxims, this collection is capable of adding style to an otherwise nondescript article. 
Whether the topic is of history or mystery, of humans or of animals, land warriors or of sea farers, of lazy fools or or lost romatics as well as of matters of sundry interest, this book can give a fitting addition or riposte.
This is a helpful companion for those labouring with writing something attractive, like me! A good index and navigation ease make this book really simple to use too.

Thursday, February 9, 2017


'A Brief Guide to LIVING WITH DANGER' by Mike Dixon tells the story of a research astronomer's stints with public relations, journalism, diving, tourist operations and writing.

The author's journey begins with the adventures of sky diving and wingsuit flying. From there to formation skydiving, surfing, and through the wonders of the deep shown by scuba diving, it continues to rock climbing, not to mention the rise in adrenaline due extreme surfing and shark feeding.
The book then goes on to give some romantic descriptions of many, severe, natural disasters, mass extinctions, volcanoes, tsunamis, hurricanes, etc, as well as the hot topic of these days, climate change.
The hazards faced by female patrons of nightclubs, as well as the nasty things that can happen guys find a mention. Other issues affecting our society, like precocious puberty in girls, falling sperm count in males, and incidents of antibiotic resistant bacteria brings the book to a close.

I found this a real page turner. Every page, every line and every word contain meaningful information, that too movingly presented. The book offers good many helpful hints for those going for adventure in such dangerous and tricky sports. Like, 'Carry lots of spare water. I use 2-litre plastic milk bottles, which are easy to pack amongst luggage, Take a mobile phone but don't count on reception everywhere. Better still: take a satellite phone, Take spare fanbelts, spare radiator hoses and jump leads.', etc.

Wednesday, February 8, 2017

Easier life and a better world!

Threshold, which refers to the part of the floor at the entrance to a room or building, signifies the beginning of something.
This is quite a popular, useful concept in engineering, enables one to make more appropriate decisions regarding health of a system and each of its components, just by observing system performance.

Current threshold: The minimum current level which produces a given effect, result, or response, such as detection, ativation, or operation. For example, the lowest current needed to sustain lasing action in a diode laser.

Sound threshold: The minimum sound pressure level necessary to be detected by human ears. 

Frequency threshold: The minimum or maximum frequency which produces a given effect, result, or response, such as detection, activation, or operation. For example, each of the cutoff frequencies of a filter, amplifier, or waveguide.

But this concept is not at all popular in the affairs of life and living, where it could have defined a boundary for all our considerations. As a parameter, threshold could have marked the point beyond which what we consider as a radically different state of affairs exists. Which could have greatly altered our thoughts about everything that leads us to a change in view. And new ideas about good or bad, acceptable or unacceptable, healthy or sick, right or wrong etc. Or, could have helped us in prescribing rules of conduct, more conducive to social tranquility. Easier life and a better world!

Sunday, February 5, 2017

Book Review: Man the Unknown

 "This book", tells the Nobel prize winning author, "originated from the observation of a simple fact--the high development of the sciences of inanimate matter, and our ignorance of life."  modern society--that society produced by science and technology--is committing the same mistake as have all the civilizations of antiquity. It has created conditions of life wherein life itself becomes impossible. Well depicted by the quote "Civilization is a disease which is almost invariably fatal." Man is not able to manage the world derived from the caprice of his intelligence?

The democratic ideology itself, unless reconstructed upon a scientific basis, has no more  chance of surviving than the fascist or Marxist ideologies. The present civilization may escape the common fate, because it has at its disposal, the unlimited resources of science. But it may not, since it is not science, but fear, enthusiasm, self sacrifice, hatred, or love that can make us act.

The book begins by examining the many facets of man, specially focusing on the slow progress of the knowledge of ourselves, and the way we delight in contemplating simple facts. And how, as a result, the knowledge of the human being, as compared with the splendid ascension of physics, astronomy, chemistry, and mechanics, may show slow progress.
But the environment which has molded the body and the soul of our ancestors during many millenniums has now been replaced by another.  And has failed to produce people endowed with imagination, intelligence, and courage. In short, the environment, which science and technology have succeeded in developing for man, does not suit him, because it has been constructed at random, without regard for his true self.
The book then goes on to attribute the confusion in our knowledge of ourselves that comes chiefly 
from the presence, among the positive facts, of the remains of scientific, philosophic, and religious systems, what the author tells as intellectual slavery. Which causes undue importance being given to some part at the expense of the others. This is followed by an examination of our physiological attributes and how those affect the state of modern man, further followed by a survey of human activities of the mental plane. Like how modern life acts upon consciousness, what promotes idiocy and insanity, etc.
The many facets of time is then discussed, both relating to external world and of our physiology. How science, which has transformed the material world, gives man the power of transforming himself. How our crumbling civilization is capable of discerning the causes of its decay, utilizing the gigantic strength of science. Using the power of science, how we can develop all the potentialities of our body. For the first time, the fate of the inhabitant is in his own hands.

This book once again proves the relevance of my books. It also talks about certain unexplainable transactions constantly taking place with man. But, the abstract reasons proposed, though in quite convincing and elegantly worded expressions, does not in itself, establish a connection with the actual state of things. I think the author's conclusions would have been different had all forms of life been studied together, instead of letting oneself affected by the (apparent) peculiarities of only the humans.

Saturday, February 4, 2017

Book Review: Physics and Politics

Physics and Politics, or, Thoughts on the application of the principles of "natural selection" and "inheritance" to political society, by Walter Bagehot.
The book begins with a review of the preliminary age, when the sudden acquisition of much physical knowledge started to impact our society. There is scarcely a department of science or art which is the same, or at all the same, as it was fifty years ago. A new world of inventions—of railways and of telegraphs—has grown up around us which we cannot help seeing; a new world of ideas is in the air and affects us, though we do not see it.
Thereafter the book delves into many of the restrictive practices of olden days, like the policy of the old priest-nobles of Egypt and India who divert their people from becoming familiar with the sea, and represent the occupation of a seaman as incompatible with the purity of the highest castes. Or maxims like 'Whoever speaks two languages is a rascal', which seriously limited society's growth.
Another element with significant influence is discussed next - the difference between progression and stationary inaction. How progress was unknown to the ancient world, which mistook it as latter. Even when changes happened to take place, those tended to concentrate itself more and more in certain groups which we call 'civilised nations.' And how the nations themselves progressed into dissimilar societies having different ambitions. And how, we are into the present, 'an age of committees', where the committees do nothing in particular, and all our energy evaporates in to talk.
The book mentions that political science also is under the influence of natural forces, just as physical science is. Like reflex actions that are natural in makeup, by the help of the brain we may acquire an affinity of certain way of behavior (ARTIFICIAL reflex actions). Which is to say, an action may require all our attention and all our volition for its initial instances, but could autonomously happen on later occasions. But, the author states, just as physical science acts upon things to leave distinct signs of the nature's influence, it is possible to construe an accurate conception of what we may expect in the political plane. By observation, we can also find a good account of the evidence by which we are led to expect it. This further takes us to the great conquest of our earth and what facilitated this, nature's influence, can be clearly observed in our laws, the ultimate bond of our civilization. 
The author clearly has some points. The growth shown by some cultures as well as the stagnation of a few others have been shown to be owing to the flexible nature (or the lack of it) displayed by each society, or the different ideas of 'progress' each maintained. These we can easily make out from the laws prevailing in each.

Friday, February 3, 2017

Book Review: The Nature of Existence

The Nature of Existence by Alasdair Forsythe
is a book exploring the answers related to ones existence, consciousness, happiness, life, enlightenment, and many other related questions.

The book analyses all such issues, reducing each to its fundamental experiences.
Like, 'Existence exists only by comparison
One knows white
Only by black;
One knows love
Only by heartbreak;
One knows truth
Only by untruth;' etc.

Or, 'Where does knowledge come from?
Our experiences only exist
In comparison to,
And in contrast with,
All of our previous experience;'

Or, 'You do not need to worry
About anything,
The worry does not make it
Happen any better;
Worrying, trying, struggling
All do nothing
Except make you
More lost;'
Or, esoteric questions, like 'Do we have free will?'

Rather than directly providing answers, I found this book opening up new vistas of thought, especially on the abstract topics, a handy way of chiselling ones thoughts. Especially for those who find greater attraction to questions rather than answers, this in an invaluable companion. And, as the author puts at the end:
'This is the point
Where I tell you
That in order to know truth
You will need to find it
On your own.'

I think cartoonists will have a great time, with Trump

Wednesday, February 1, 2017

Book Review: Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking by Robin Wood. This book introduces critical thinking as the process of using reasoning to discern what is true, and what is 
false, in the phrases and "sound bytes" we hear everyday.After a brief discussion about the terms associated with this, like comfort zone, errors, fallacies etc., the essential steps involved in critical thinking is described. This consists of four attributes, each having possibility of acquiring different values, and consequently leading to a host of parameters. How these variables take part in assessing the premises, forming arguments and drawing conclusions are discussed. The book ends with a Short List of Logical Fallacies. Which are:
-Fallacies of Induction
-Fallacies of Distraction ie. Misuse of an Operator
-Syllogistic Errors
-Fallacies of Propositional Logic
-Fallacies of Ambiguity
-Changing the Subject and Misdirection
-Fallacies of Causality, etc.
This is a good book, especially for those interested in studying things. I wish I read this long ago.

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