Wednesday, September 7, 2016

Food for Thought!


Just to test my theory, that man is more interested in searching for the irrational than following the rational, I collated the history of abstract thought. As expected, what is still going strong is the most irrational of all - theism.


Doctrine of government by a single absolute ruler; autocracy  Can be i) Enlightened absolutism, also known as enlightened despotism and benevolent absolutism, is a form of absolute monarchy or despotism inspired by the Enlightenment. Enlightened monarchs embrace rationality. Most enlightened monarchs fostered education and allowed religious tolerance, freedom of speech, and the right to hold private property, ii) Moral absolutism, That there is at least one principle that ought never to be violated, or iii) Political absolutism, where, supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control.
Doctrine that we live in an irrational universe. It holds that humans historically attempt to find meaning in their lives. Traditionally, this search results in one of two conclusions: either that life is meaningless, or life contains within it a purpose set forth by a higher power—a belief in God, or adherence to some religion or other abstract concept. 19th century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard as well as Albert Camus are its leading lights.
Doctrine that nothing can be known. Refers to the doctrines of Plato's academy; specifically the skeptical doctrines of the later academy stating that nothing can be known. Can also refer to a style of painting popular in early 19th century.
Theory that events do not have causes. It can be seen as providing room for the unexpected to occur, and for persons to be involved in events that appear to be out of the ordinary scope of understanding. It says that not every event or idea is the result of a direct cause. This means that events may take place haphazardly or simply by chance.  
Disbelief in existence of eternal universe distinct from God. It is the belief that the universe and materiality are all illusion.  It maintains that God is the ultimate reality and all things that exist do so as an illusion to people. The one reality that exists is God, but God is defined not as a personal being. Western philosophers like Parmenides, Plato, Spinoza, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer and many schools of thought of Eastern origin that talks about ‘Maya’, relate to this.
Nakedness for religious reasons. Perhaps refer to an old sect, dating probably from the 2nd century, professed to have regained Adam's primeval innocence. Certain Hindu and one sect of Jain monks follow this.
Denial of gods of mythology and legend. Is a term introduced by Friedrich Max Müller to imply the denial of gods, in particular, the legendary gods of Hinduism.
Doctrine of theological indifference or latitudinarianism. That, things are morally acceptable or unacceptable by God based upon the motive and end of the doer. In this sense there are no indifferent things.
Belief that Christ was the adopted and not natural son of God. A belief that Jesus was born merely human and that he became divine—adopted as God's son—later in his life.
Doctrine that beauty is central to other moral principles. An intellectual and art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts. Art for art’s sake.
Ethics of love. A more general and equal division of the wealth of the country", as "the voluntary sharing of individual possessions with the less fortunate or successful members of the community" and as the alternative to communism.
Belief in ultimate triumph of good despite evil means. An agathist accepts that evil and misfortune will happen, but that the eventual outcome leads towards the good.
Doctrine that we can know nothing beyond material phenomena. The view that the truth values of certain claims – especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether God, the divine, or the supernatural exist – are unknown and perhaps unknowable.
Doctrine that all governments should be abolished. Though it is as old as 6th century BC, modern anarchism sprang from the secular or religious thought of the Enlightenment, particularly Jean-Jacques Rousseau's arguments for the moral centrality of freedom.
Attribution of soul to inanimate objects. It is the worldview that non-human entities—such as animals, plants, and inanimate objects—possess a spiritual essence.
Doctrine that the wicked are utterly destroyed after death. That is, at the Last Judgment, those not receiving salvation are destined for total destruction, not everlasting torment.
Attribution of human qualities to non-human things
Belief that gods are only deified men.
Denial of doctrine of the fall of humanity.
Doctrine of the rejection of moral law One who takes the principle of salvation by faith and divine grace to the point of asserting that the saved are not bound to follow the Law of Moses
Denial of validity of infant baptism
Doctrine of the imminent end of the world. Usually refers to the belief that the world will come to an end very soon, even within one's own lifetime.
Doctrine that self-denial of the body permits spiritual enlightenment. Asceticism and monasticism are two religious disciplines designed to de-emphasize the pleasures of the world so the practitioner can concentrate on the spiritual life.
Denial of the right to private property. The philosophy adopted by Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey for an egalitarian community called Pantisocracy..
Belief that there is no God  Rather, it is the absence or rejection of the belief that deities exist.
Belief that the universe consists of small indivisible particles. Ancient atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundamental principles: atom and void.
Belief that one can obtain salvation through oneself
Belief that one is God incarnate or that one is Christ. A belief that the perfected soul and God are indistinguishably one.
Belief in two gods
Doctrine that the world is good but not perfect. An old religion of Tibet, Bön doctrine was a dualistic theism, teaching that the creation of the world was brought about by coexistent good and evil principles.
Belief in the importance of metallic currency in economics. It defines wealth by the amount of precious metals owned.
Doctrine that private ownership and free markets should govern economies. Ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit will lead to public welfare.
The belief that chance governs all things.The philosophical view that the universe, its creation and development is solely based on randomness.
The concept can be traced back to Epicurus

Causalism holds behavior and actions to be the result of previous mental states, such as beliefs, desires, or intentions, rather than from a present conscious will guiding one's actions.

Belief in the wrongness of infant baptism
Belief in rapid geological and biological change. Theory that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope, in contrast to uniformitarianism (sometimes described as gradualism), in which changes are slow and incremental.
Doctrine of communal control of means of production. Gives importance to the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the significance of groups—their identities, goals, rights, and outcomes.
Theory that church is independent from the state.  This in fact holds that the church, according to natural law, is an association (Lat. collegium) comparable to any other which ought to be autonomous in the regulation of its internal matters while subject to the state in the regulation of its external matters.
Theory of classless society in which individuals cannot own property
Theory that universal truths exist as mental concepts. . In philosophy, it is a doctrine, intermediate between nominalism and realism, that universals exist only within the mind and have no external or substantial reality. Also called mentalism. In Art, it is a school of abstract art or an artistic doctrine that is concerned with the intellectual engagement of the viewer through conveyance of an idea and negation of the importance of the art object itself.
Belief in maintaining political and social traditions. A political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
Belief that knowledge and reality do not have an objective value. Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality.

Belief that the cosmos is a self-existing whole and migration of man into space is inevitable. “The Earth is the Cradle of the Mind—but one cannot eternally live in a cradle.”
The belief that identifies God with the cosmos. It asserts that "all is within God and God is within all."
Belief in God but rejection of religion
Doctrine that events are predetermined by preceding events or laws. This theory holds that the universe is utterly rational because complete knowledge of any given situation assures that unerring knowledge of its future is also possible.
Belief in the dual nature of Christ, the human and the divine, existing together.
Belief in two equal gods, one good and one evil. It is a form of dualism which holds that the universe is comprised of dualities:  good and bad, light and darkness, body and mind, etc., which violates the biblical teaching that only one God exists.
Doctrine that Christ had two wills, one divine and one human.
Doctrine that the universe is controlled by one good and one evil force (In religion) two supreme opposed powers or gods, or sets of divine or demonic beings, that caused the world to exist.
Belief that humans ought to be equal in rights and privileges, a trend of thought that favors equality for all people.[
Doctrine that the pursuit of self-interest is the highest good as opposed to altruism.
Identification of oneself with God, the view that the idea of God is nothing more than a conception of the self.
Belief in ghosts, etymology difficult to trace, but typically attributed to the Greek eidolon (“image, apparition, phantom, ghost”)
Theory that moral statements are inherently biased, that is, ethical sentences do not express propositions but emotional attitudes.
Doctrine that the experience of the senses is the only source of knowledge, and that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.
Doctrine of joining a group to change its policies. Some groups encourage its members or supporters to join another, usually larger, organization in an attempt to expand influence and expand their ideas and program.
Doctrine that mental processes are epiphenomena of brain activity, which holds that physical events (sense organs, neural impulses, and muscle contractions) are causal with respect to mental events (thought, consciousness, and cognition).
The belief that matter has existed eternally and, takes the view that all points in time are equally "real", as opposed to the present idea that only the present is real.
Ethical belief that happiness equals morality. A self-realization theory that makes happiness or personal well-being the chief good for man. The Greek word eudaimonia means literally “the state of having a good indwelling spirit, a good genius”;
Explanation of mythology, an approach to the interpretation of mythology in which mythological accounts are presumed to have originated from real historical events or personages.
Doctrine of individual human responsibility in an unfathomable universe. The belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual, that ones existence comes before ones essence.
Doctrine that knowledge comes from experience. Formulated by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson and its book Metaphors We Live By.
The doctrine that empirical knowledge is uncertain. The philosophical principle that human beings could be wrong about their beliefs, expectations, or their understanding of the world.
Doctrine that events are fixed and humans are powerless. That we are powerless to do anything other than what we actually do.
Doctrine that knowledge depends on faith over reason. The view that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths
Belief that an end has or can be reached, the belief that all events are determined by their purposes or goals.
Belief in evolution by chance variation in natural events rather than absolute determinism.
Doctrine emphasising utility and function, which says that mental states are identified by what they do rather than by what they are made of.
Belief that Earth is the centre of the universe
Belief that freedom derives solely from knowledge. The knowledge of transcendence arrived at by way of interior, intuitive means. Gnosticism thus rests on personal religious experience,
Belief that things proceed by degrees. Gradualism and punctuated equilibrium are two ways in which the evolution of a species can occur.
Belief that the Bible can be presented to unlearned without commentary. (was condemned by the Catholic Church)
Belief that pleasure is the highest good
Doctrine that there is only one kind of existence
Belief in one tribal god, but not as the only god. Hence it refers to a middle position between unlimited polytheism and exclusive monotheism.
Belief that all phenomena are historically determined, and it places great importance on cautious, rigorous, and contextualized interpretation of information; or relativist, because it rejects notions of universal, fundamental and immutable interpretations.
Doctrine that parts of any thing must be understood in relation to the whole. This often includes the view that systems function as wholes and that their functioning cannot be fully understood solely in terms of their component parts.[
Belief in baptism with total immersion in water
Belief that human interests and mind are paramount, rather than myths, legends and other theological elements.
Doctrine that the highest moral obligation is to improve human welfare, a moral of kindness, benevolence, and sympathy extended to all human beings.
The philosophy that the only thing that can be proven to exist is matter and that everything, including consciousness, is as a result of interaction with material things. Also called materialism
Belief that matter is cause of the universe. A philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form.
Belief in ability of matter to affect the spiritual world. It is the belief that some or all matter is sentient or that properties of matter in general give rise to subjective experience. It is opposed to the assertion that consciousness results exclusively from properties of specific types of matter, e.g. brain tissue.
Belief that the universe is purely material. Matter is God, or that there is no God except matter and the Universe. It is distinct from materialism in that the hylotheist sees the material Universe as God and distinguished from other forms of theism in that the hylotheist does not believe in a supernatural or dualistic Universe.
Doctrine that all matter is endowed with life. The concept dates back at least as far as the Milesian school of pre-Socratic philosophers.
Belief that our experiences of the world consist of ideas, asserting that all entities are composed of mind or spirit.
Doctrine that objective and subjective, or matter and mind, are identical.
Doctrine that ignorance is a favourable thing
Belief in an inward spiritual light, a special personal enlightenment.
A technique of using pictorial methods in order to deceive the eye, or, in Philosophy. a theory or doctrine that the material world is an illusion.
Doctrine of use of precise images with unrestricted subject, clarity of expression through the use of precise visual images.
Belief in an immanent or permanent god Any of various religious theories postulating that a deity, mind, or spirit is immanent in the world and in the individual.
The doctrine that there is no material substance. Berkeley's philosophical view, often described as an argument for "immaterialism", by which is meant a denial of the existence of matter (or more precisely, material substance.)
Rejection of morality, rather, an indifference toward conventional morality.
The belief that all religions are equally valid. In Roman Catholic faith, is the belief held by some that no one religion or philosophy is superior to another
Belief that individual interests and rights are paramount
Doctrine that ideas are instruments of action. A view in Epistemology and Philosophy of Science, advanced by the American philosopher John Dewey, that concepts and theories are merely useful instruments, and their worth is measured not by whether the concepts and theories are true or false (Instrumentalism denies that theories are truth-evaluable), or whether they correctly depict reality, but by how effective they are in explaining and predicting phenomena.
Belief that all knowledge is derived from reason. This regards the intellect as superior to the will, and that the intellect is the basic factor, both in the universe and in human conduct.
Belief that mind and body act on each other. A theoretical perspective that derives social processes (such as conflict, cooperation, identity formation) from human interaction. It is the study of how individuals act within society.
Doctrine that knowledge of mind must derive from introspection
Belief that the perception of truth is by intuition
System of belief that is hostile to religions
Polytheism in which each god is considered single and supreme. A more specific form of henotheism, refers to the worship of a succession of supreme gods "one at a time", from the Greek kath' hena "one by one"
Doctrine that Christ rid himself of divinity in becoming human
Doctrine of opposition to clergy and priests. The absence of religious involvement in government affairs, especially the prohibition of religious influence in the determination of state policies; it is also the absence of government involvement in religious affairs, especially the prohibition of government influence in the determination of religion.
Doctrine of broad liberality in religious belief and conduct. A group of 17th-century English theologians believed in conforming to official Church of England practices but felt that matters of doctrine, liturgical practice, and ecclesiastical organization were of relatively little importance.
Belief that an unlikely opinion may be safely followed. Given a choice, follow the liberal course.
Belief that salvation depends on strict adherence to the law, ie., the act of putting law above gospel. In early China, was a philosophical belief that human beings are more inclined to do wrong than right because they are motivated entirely by self interest. In Western Philosophy, it is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. Legalism has occurred both in civil and common law traditions.
Doctrine of social change and tolerance, is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.
Doctrine that personal liberty is the highest. Libertarians seek to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice, emphasizing political freedom, voluntary association, and the primacy of individual judgment.
The belief that the world is evil
Belief that matter is the only extant substance
Belief that life is explainable by mechanical forces
The belief the world tends to become better It holds that humans can, through their interference with processes that would otherwise be natural, produce an outcome which is an improvement over the aforementioned natural one
Belief that the world can be explained as aspect of the mind
Belief in a single messiah or saviour
Belief that an ideal society will be produced in the near future
Belief in unity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit
Theory that there exist ultimate units of being
Theory that the Holy Spirit alone can act
Belief that all things can be placed in one category
Belief that Christ was primarily divine but in human form
Belief that individuals have a single eternal soul
Belief in only one God
Belief that Christ had only one will
Belief that the soul is mortal
Belief in mutual dependence of society and the individual
Belief that the mind possesses inborn thoughts
Belief that the world can be explained in terms of natural forces
Theory that actions are determined by prior history; fatalism
Theory that the gospel abrogates earlier moral codes
Theory that total material explanation is impossible
Denial of all reality; extreme scepticism
Doctrine that naming of things defines reality
View that moral conduct consists in observance of laws
Belief in existence of noumena
Denial that the soul exists in space
Belief in local deities or spirits
Doctrine that all reality is objective
Belief in all religions
Doctrine that we live in the best of all possible worlds
Conception of life or society as an organism
Doctrine of infant baptism
Theory that consciousness may inhere generally in matter
Theory that the material universe is all that exists
Solipsism, a form of scepticism
Belief that world is part but not all of God’s being
Theory that all nature has a psychic side
Theory that all thought derived from sexual instinct
Belief in origin of life from extraterrestrial germs
Belief that the universe is God; belief in many gods
Belief that humans and animals share vital life energy
Belief that matter and mind don’t interact but relate
Severe pessimism, The theory that the world is deteriorating or growing worse.
Doctrine that humans capable of becoming perfect
Doctrine that moral perfection constitutes the highest value
Doctrine that humans possess spiritual freedom
Doctrine that the universe is essentially evil
Belief that phenomena are the only realities
Belief that all phenomena reducible to verifiable assertions
Attribution of physical form and attributes to deities
Belief that reality consists of several kinds or entities
Belief in multiple deities
Doctrine that that which is not observable is not knowable
Doctrine emphasizing practical value of philosophy
Belief that what ever is to happen is already fixed
Belief that moral edicts are merely orders with no truth value
Doctrine that a simple and natural life is morally best
Attitude of avoiding involvement in outside interests
Belief that when in doubt one must choose most likely answer
Belief that knowledge is always probable but never absolute
Denial of Christ's divinity
Belief in universal soul
Doctrine that inanimate objects have human mentality
Belief souls sleep from death to resurrection
Doctrine that God is a purely spiritual entity
Total or radical skepticism
Doctrine of enlightenment through mental tranquility
Belief that race is the primary determinant of human capacities
Belief that reason is the fundamental source of knowledge
Doctrine that objects of cognition are real
Belief that complex phenomena are reducible to simple ones
Doctrine of the monarch's supremacy in church affairs
Doctrine that ideas rather than external objects are basis of knowledge
Belief that a republic is the best form of government
Humorous theory that inanimate objects display malice towards humans, i.e., "spiteful behavior manifested by inanimate objects”
Belief in sentimental feeling in artistic expression
Belief that priests are necessary mediators between God and mankind
Belief that sacraments have unusual properties
Belief that the methods of science are universally applicable
Doctrine that the actions of a self are determined by itself
Belief that ideas originate solely in sensation
Belief in systematic inequalities between the sexes
Belief that the stars influence human affairs
Doctrine that true knowledge is always uncertain. Often directed at domains, such as morality (moral skepticism), religion (skepticism about the existence of God), or the nature of knowledge (skepticism of knowledge).[
Doctrine of centralized state control of wealth and property
Excessive use of solar myths in explaining mythology
Doctrine that faith alone will ensure salvation
Theory that self-existence is the only certainty. Theory, which holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure.
Materialism, especially the belief that emotional and mental disorders are of physical origin and caused by bodily lesions.
Doctrine that matter has only spatial, temporal and causal properties
Belief that nothing is real except the soul or spirit
Belief that the consecrated Eucharist is digested and evacuated
Belief in indifference to pleasure or pain
Doctrine that all knowledge is subjective
Belief that there is a real existence underlying phenomena
Doctrine of direct worker control of capital
Belief that human will and divine spirit cooperate in salvation. In general, may be defined as two or more agents working together to produce a result not obtainable by any of the agents independently.
Doctrine that there is a time limit for repentance
Belief that the soul dies with the body. Term employed by Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) to express his doctrine of the mortality of annihilation of the human soul, the contrary of athanatism, immortality.
Belief in the existence of God without special revelation
Belief that God is central fact of existence
Belief that God is the only reality
Belief that the soul is of a divine nature
Belief that the soul dies with the body, to be reborn on day of judgement
Spirit of revolt or defiance against social conventions.
Doctrine of toleration of religious differences. Locke, Spinoza etc are the proponents.
Belief that a group has a special kinship with an object or animal
Theory that emphasizes that which transcends perception, which is very simple idea. People, men and women equally, have knowledge about themselves and the world around them that "transcends" or goes beyond what they can see, hear, taste, touch or feel.
Belief that soul passes into other body at death
Doctrine that humans have three separate essences (body, soul, spirit). 1) In philosophy was introduced by John Cottingham as an alternative interpretation of the mind-body dualism of Rene Descartes. Trialism keeps the two substances of mind and body, but introduces a third attribute, sensation, belonging to the union of mind and body. This allows animals, which do not have thought, to be regarded as having sensation and not as being mere automata.2) Christian trialism is the doctrine that humans have three separate essences (body, soul, spirit),
Belief that the members of the Trinity are separate gods.
Belief in the superiority of one particular religious creed. The attitude or belief that a particular doctrine, religion, culture, or social system is superior to and should triumph over all others.
Theory that individuals have a second or other self. Thus all thought is addressed to a second person, or to one's future self as to a second person.
Doctrine that one should take the safer moral course
Theory that accepts role of pure chance, a thesis proposed by the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce.
Belief that Christ is everywhere. Protestant sect was started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 December 1559, by Johannes Brenz, a Swabian
Theory that light consists of waves
Belief in universal salvation, that all people will eventually be saved.
Belief that utility of actions determines moral value. The ethical theory was proposed by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill that all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
The doctrine that there is a vital force behind life, and that cannot be explained entirely as physical and chemical phenomena.
Belief that the will dominates the intellect, the fundamental principle of the individual or of the universe.
Doctrine that life originates from a single vital principle, or, reverence for animal life or a belief in magical animal powers.
Conception of a god or man in animal form.
Attribution of divine qualities to animals. Philosophies and beliefs may be seriated in four stages: The first stage is hecastotheism; in this stage extranatural or mysterious potencies are imputed to objects both animate and inanimate. The second stage is zootheism; within it the powers of animate forms are exaggerated and amplified into the realm of the supernal, and certain animals are deified.