Wednesday, September 7, 2016

Food for Thought!
















absolutism 

Just to test my theory, that man is more interested in searching for the irrational than following the rational, I collated the history of abstract thought. As expected, what is still going strong is the most irrational of all - theism.

 


Doctrine of government by a single absolute ruler; autocracy  Can be i) Enlightened absolutism, also known as enlightened despotism and benevolent absolutism, is a form of absolute monarchy or despotism inspired by the Enlightenment. Enlightened monarchs embrace rationality. Most enlightened monarchs fostered education and allowed religious tolerance, freedom of speech, and the right to hold private property, ii) Moral absolutism, That there is at least one principle that ought never to be violated, or iii) Political absolutism, where, supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control.
absurdism
Doctrine that we live in an irrational universe. It holds that humans historically attempt to find meaning in their lives. Traditionally, this search results in one of two conclusions: either that life is meaningless, or life contains within it a purpose set forth by a higher power—a belief in God, or adherence to some religion or other abstract concept. 19th century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard as well as Albert Camus are its leading lights.
academicism
Doctrine that nothing can be known. Refers to the doctrines of Plato's academy; specifically the skeptical doctrines of the later academy stating that nothing can be known. Can also refer to a style of painting popular in early 19th century.
accidentalism
Theory that events do not have causes. It can be seen as providing room for the unexpected to occur, and for persons to be involved in events that appear to be out of the ordinary scope of understanding. It says that not every event or idea is the result of a direct cause. This means that events may take place haphazardly or simply by chance.  
acosmism
Disbelief in existence of eternal universe distinct from God. It is the belief that the universe and materiality are all illusion.  It maintains that God is the ultimate reality and all things that exist do so as an illusion to people. The one reality that exists is God, but God is defined not as a personal being. Western philosophers like Parmenides, Plato, Spinoza, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer and many schools of thought of Eastern origin that talks about ‘Maya’, relate to this.
adamitism
Nakedness for religious reasons. Perhaps refer to an old sect, dating probably from the 2nd century, professed to have regained Adam's primeval innocence. Certain Hindu and one sect of Jain monks follow this.
adevism
Denial of gods of mythology and legend. Is a term introduced by Friedrich Max Müller to imply the denial of gods, in particular, the legendary gods of Hinduism.
adiaphorism
Doctrine of theological indifference or latitudinarianism. That, things are morally acceptable or unacceptable by God based upon the motive and end of the doer. In this sense there are no indifferent things.
adoptionism
Belief that Christ was the adopted and not natural son of God. A belief that Jesus was born merely human and that he became divine—adopted as God's son—later in his life.
aestheticism
Doctrine that beauty is central to other moral principles. An intellectual and art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts. Art for art’s sake.
agapism
Ethics of love. A more general and equal division of the wealth of the country", as "the voluntary sharing of individual possessions with the less fortunate or successful members of the community" and as the alternative to communism.
agathism
Belief in ultimate triumph of good despite evil means. An agathist accepts that evil and misfortune will happen, but that the eventual outcome leads towards the good.
agnosticism
Doctrine that we can know nothing beyond material phenomena. The view that the truth values of certain claims – especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether God, the divine, or the supernatural exist – are unknown and perhaps unknowable.
anarchism
Doctrine that all governments should be abolished. Though it is as old as 6th century BC, modern anarchism sprang from the secular or religious thought of the Enlightenment, particularly Jean-Jacques Rousseau's arguments for the moral centrality of freedom.
animism
Attribution of soul to inanimate objects. It is the worldview that non-human entities—such as animals, plants, and inanimate objects—possess a spiritual essence.
annihilationism
Doctrine that the wicked are utterly destroyed after death. That is, at the Last Judgment, those not receiving salvation are destined for total destruction, not everlasting torment.
anthropomorphism
Attribution of human qualities to non-human things
anthropotheism
Belief that gods are only deified men.
antilapsarianism
Denial of doctrine of the fall of humanity.
antinomianism
Doctrine of the rejection of moral law One who takes the principle of salvation by faith and divine grace to the point of asserting that the saved are not bound to follow the Law of Moses
antipedobaptism
Denial of validity of infant baptism
apocalypticism
Doctrine of the imminent end of the world. Usually refers to the belief that the world will come to an end very soon, even within one's own lifetime.
asceticism
Doctrine that self-denial of the body permits spiritual enlightenment. Asceticism and monasticism are two religious disciplines designed to de-emphasize the pleasures of the world so the practitioner can concentrate on the spiritual life.
aspheterism
Denial of the right to private property. The philosophy adopted by Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey for an egalitarian community called Pantisocracy..
atheism
Belief that there is no God  Rather, it is the absence or rejection of the belief that deities exist.
atomism
Belief that the universe consists of small indivisible particles. Ancient atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundamental principles: atom and void.
autosoterism
Belief that one can obtain salvation through oneself
autotheism
Belief that one is God incarnate or that one is Christ. A belief that the perfected soul and God are indistinguishably one.
bitheism
Belief in two gods
bonism
Doctrine that the world is good but not perfect. An old religion of Tibet, Bön doctrine was a dualistic theism, teaching that the creation of the world was brought about by coexistent good and evil principles.
bullionism
Belief in the importance of metallic currency in economics. It defines wealth by the amount of precious metals owned.
capitalism
Doctrine that private ownership and free markets should govern economies. Ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit will lead to public welfare.
casualism
The belief that chance governs all things.The philosophical view that the universe, its creation and development is solely based on randomness.
The concept can be traced back to Epicurus
Causalism

catabaptism
Causalism holds behavior and actions to be the result of previous mental states, such as beliefs, desires, or intentions, rather than from a present conscious will guiding one's actions.

Belief in the wrongness of infant baptism
catastrophism
Belief in rapid geological and biological change. Theory that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope, in contrast to uniformitarianism (sometimes described as gradualism), in which changes are slow and incremental.
collectivism
Doctrine of communal control of means of production. Gives importance to the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the significance of groups—their identities, goals, rights, and outcomes.
collegialism
Theory that church is independent from the state.  This in fact holds that the church, according to natural law, is an association (Lat. collegium) comparable to any other which ought to be autonomous in the regulation of its internal matters while subject to the state in the regulation of its external matters.
communism
Theory of classless society in which individuals cannot own property
conceptualism
Theory that universal truths exist as mental concepts. . In philosophy, it is a doctrine, intermediate between nominalism and realism, that universals exist only within the mind and have no external or substantial reality. Also called mentalism. In Art, it is a school of abstract art or an artistic doctrine that is concerned with the intellectual engagement of the viewer through conveyance of an idea and negation of the importance of the art object itself.
conservatism
Belief in maintaining political and social traditions. A political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
constructivism
Belief that knowledge and reality do not have an objective value. Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality.

cosmism
Belief that the cosmos is a self-existing whole and migration of man into space is inevitable. “The Earth is the Cradle of the Mind—but one cannot eternally live in a cradle.”
cosmotheism
The belief that identifies God with the cosmos. It asserts that "all is within God and God is within all."
deism
Belief in God but rejection of religion
determinism
Doctrine that events are predetermined by preceding events or laws. This theory holds that the universe is utterly rational because complete knowledge of any given situation assures that unerring knowledge of its future is also possible.
diphysitism
Belief in the dual nature of Christ, the human and the divine, existing together.
ditheism
Belief in two equal gods, one good and one evil. It is a form of dualism which holds that the universe is comprised of dualities:  good and bad, light and darkness, body and mind, etc., which violates the biblical teaching that only one God exists.
ditheletism
Doctrine that Christ had two wills, one divine and one human.
dualism
Doctrine that the universe is controlled by one good and one evil force (In religion) two supreme opposed powers or gods, or sets of divine or demonic beings, that caused the world to exist.
egalitarianism
Belief that humans ought to be equal in rights and privileges, a trend of thought that favors equality for all people.[
egoism
Doctrine that the pursuit of self-interest is the highest good as opposed to altruism.
egotheism
Identification of oneself with God, the view that the idea of God is nothing more than a conception of the self.
eidolism
Belief in ghosts, etymology difficult to trace, but typically attributed to the Greek eidolon (“image, apparition, phantom, ghost”)
emotivism
Theory that moral statements are inherently biased, that is, ethical sentences do not express propositions but emotional attitudes.
empiricism
Doctrine that the experience of the senses is the only source of knowledge, and that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.
entryism
Doctrine of joining a group to change its policies. Some groups encourage its members or supporters to join another, usually larger, organization in an attempt to expand influence and expand their ideas and program.
epiphenomenalism
Doctrine that mental processes are epiphenomena of brain activity, which holds that physical events (sense organs, neural impulses, and muscle contractions) are causal with respect to mental events (thought, consciousness, and cognition).
eternalism
The belief that matter has existed eternally and, takes the view that all points in time are equally "real", as opposed to the present idea that only the present is real.
eudaemonism
Ethical belief that happiness equals morality. A self-realization theory that makes happiness or personal well-being the chief good for man. The Greek word eudaimonia means literally “the state of having a good indwelling spirit, a good genius”;
euhemerism
Explanation of mythology, an approach to the interpretation of mythology in which mythological accounts are presumed to have originated from real historical events or personages.
existentialism
Doctrine of individual human responsibility in an unfathomable universe. The belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual, that ones existence comes before ones essence.
experientialism
Doctrine that knowledge comes from experience. Formulated by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson and its book Metaphors We Live By.
fallibilism
The doctrine that empirical knowledge is uncertain. The philosophical principle that human beings could be wrong about their beliefs, expectations, or their understanding of the world.
fatalism
Doctrine that events are fixed and humans are powerless. That we are powerless to do anything other than what we actually do.
fideism
Doctrine that knowledge depends on faith over reason. The view that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths
finalism
Belief that an end has or can be reached, the belief that all events are determined by their purposes or goals.
fortuitism
Belief in evolution by chance variation in natural events rather than absolute determinism.
functionalism
Doctrine emphasising utility and function, which says that mental states are identified by what they do rather than by what they are made of.
geocentrism
Belief that Earth is the centre of the universe
gnosticism
Belief that freedom derives solely from knowledge. The knowledge of transcendence arrived at by way of interior, intuitive means. Gnosticism thus rests on personal religious experience,
gradualism
Belief that things proceed by degrees. Gradualism and punctuated equilibrium are two ways in which the evolution of a species can occur.
gymnobiblism
Belief that the Bible can be presented to unlearned without commentary. (was condemned by the Catholic Church)
hedonism
Belief that pleasure is the highest good
henism
Doctrine that there is only one kind of existence
henotheism
Belief in one tribal god, but not as the only god. Hence it refers to a middle position between unlimited polytheism and exclusive monotheism.
historicism
Belief that all phenomena are historically determined, and it places great importance on cautious, rigorous, and contextualized interpretation of information; or relativist, because it rejects notions of universal, fundamental and immutable interpretations.
holism
Doctrine that parts of any thing must be understood in relation to the whole. This often includes the view that systems function as wholes and that their functioning cannot be fully understood solely in terms of their component parts.[
holobaptism
Belief in baptism with total immersion in water
humanism
Belief that human interests and mind are paramount, rather than myths, legends and other theological elements.
humanitarianism
Doctrine that the highest moral obligation is to improve human welfare, a moral of kindness, benevolence, and sympathy extended to all human beings.
hylicism
The philosophy that the only thing that can be proven to exist is matter and that everything, including consciousness, is as a result of interaction with material things. Also called materialism
Belief that matter is cause of the universe. A philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form.
hylopathism
Belief in ability of matter to affect the spiritual world. It is the belief that some or all matter is sentient or that properties of matter in general give rise to subjective experience. It is opposed to the assertion that consciousness results exclusively from properties of specific types of matter, e.g. brain tissue.
hylotheism
Belief that the universe is purely material. Matter is God, or that there is no God except matter and the Universe. It is distinct from materialism in that the hylotheist sees the material Universe as God and distinguished from other forms of theism in that the hylotheist does not believe in a supernatural or dualistic Universe.
hylozoism
Doctrine that all matter is endowed with life. The concept dates back at least as far as the Milesian school of pre-Socratic philosophers.
idealism
Belief that our experiences of the world consist of ideas, asserting that all entities are composed of mind or spirit.
identism
Doctrine that objective and subjective, or matter and mind, are identical.
ignorantism
Doctrine that ignorance is a favourable thing
illuminism
Belief in an inward spiritual light, a special personal enlightenment.
illusionism
A technique of using pictorial methods in order to deceive the eye, or, in Philosophy. a theory or doctrine that the material world is an illusion.
imagism
Doctrine of use of precise images with unrestricted subject, clarity of expression through the use of precise visual images.
immanentism
Belief in an immanent or permanent god Any of various religious theories postulating that a deity, mind, or spirit is immanent in the world and in the individual.
immaterialism
The doctrine that there is no material substance. Berkeley's philosophical view, often described as an argument for "immaterialism", by which is meant a denial of the existence of matter (or more precisely, material substance.)
immoralism
Rejection of morality, rather, an indifference toward conventional morality.
indifferentism
The belief that all religions are equally valid. In Roman Catholic faith, is the belief held by some that no one religion or philosophy is superior to another
individualism
Belief that individual interests and rights are paramount
instrumentalism
Doctrine that ideas are instruments of action. A view in Epistemology and Philosophy of Science, advanced by the American philosopher John Dewey, that concepts and theories are merely useful instruments, and their worth is measured not by whether the concepts and theories are true or false (Instrumentalism denies that theories are truth-evaluable), or whether they correctly depict reality, but by how effective they are in explaining and predicting phenomena.
intellectualism
Belief that all knowledge is derived from reason. This regards the intellect as superior to the will, and that the intellect is the basic factor, both in the universe and in human conduct.
interactionism
Belief that mind and body act on each other. A theoretical perspective that derives social processes (such as conflict, cooperation, identity formation) from human interaction. It is the study of how individuals act within society.
introspectionism
Doctrine that knowledge of mind must derive from introspection
intuitionism
Belief that the perception of truth is by intuition
irreligionism
System of belief that is hostile to religions
kathenotheism
Polytheism in which each god is considered single and supreme. A more specific form of henotheism, refers to the worship of a succession of supreme gods "one at a time", from the Greek kath' hena "one by one"
kenotism
Doctrine that Christ rid himself of divinity in becoming human
laicism
Doctrine of opposition to clergy and priests. The absence of religious involvement in government affairs, especially the prohibition of religious influence in the determination of state policies; it is also the absence of government involvement in religious affairs, especially the prohibition of government influence in the determination of religion.
latitudinarianism
Doctrine of broad liberality in religious belief and conduct. A group of 17th-century English theologians believed in conforming to official Church of England practices but felt that matters of doctrine, liturgical practice, and ecclesiastical organization were of relatively little importance.
laxism
Belief that an unlikely opinion may be safely followed. Given a choice, follow the liberal course.
legalism
Belief that salvation depends on strict adherence to the law, ie., the act of putting law above gospel. In early China, was a philosophical belief that human beings are more inclined to do wrong than right because they are motivated entirely by self interest. In Western Philosophy, it is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. Legalism has occurred both in civil and common law traditions.
liberalism
Doctrine of social change and tolerance, is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.
libertarianism
Doctrine that personal liberty is the highest. Libertarians seek to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice, emphasizing political freedom, voluntary association, and the primacy of individual judgment.
malism
The belief that the world is evil
materialism
Belief that matter is the only extant substance
mechanism
Belief that life is explainable by mechanical forces
meliorism
The belief the world tends to become better It holds that humans can, through their interference with processes that would otherwise be natural, produce an outcome which is an improvement over the aforementioned natural one
mentalism
Belief that the world can be explained as aspect of the mind
messianism
Belief in a single messiah or saviour
millenarianism
Belief that an ideal society will be produced in the near future
modalism
Belief in unity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit
monadism
Theory that there exist ultimate units of being
monergism
Theory that the Holy Spirit alone can act
monism
Belief that all things can be placed in one category
monophysitism
Belief that Christ was primarily divine but in human form
monopsychism
Belief that individuals have a single eternal soul
monotheism
Belief in only one God
monotheletism
Belief that Christ had only one will
mortalism
Belief that the soul is mortal
mutualism
Belief in mutual dependence of society and the individual
nativism
Belief that the mind possesses inborn thoughts
naturalism
Belief that the world can be explained in terms of natural forces
necessarianism
Theory that actions are determined by prior history; fatalism
neonomianism
Theory that the gospel abrogates earlier moral codes
neovitalism
Theory that total material explanation is impossible
nihilism
Denial of all reality; extreme scepticism
nominalism
Doctrine that naming of things defines reality
nomism
View that moral conduct consists in observance of laws
noumenalism
Belief in existence of noumena
nullibilism
Denial that the soul exists in space
numenism
Belief in local deities or spirits
objectivism
Doctrine that all reality is objective
omnism
Belief in all religions
optimism
Doctrine that we live in the best of all possible worlds
organicism
Conception of life or society as an organism
paedobaptism
Doctrine of infant baptism
panaesthetism
Theory that consciousness may inhere generally in matter
pancosmism
Theory that the material universe is all that exists
panegoism
Solipsism, a form of scepticism
panentheism
Belief that world is part but not all of God’s being
panpsychism
Theory that all nature has a psychic side
pansexualism
Theory that all thought derived from sexual instinct
panspermatism
Belief in origin of life from extraterrestrial germs
pantheism
Belief that the universe is God; belief in many gods
panzoism
Belief that humans and animals share vital life energy
parallelism
Belief that matter and mind don’t interact but relate
pejorism
Severe pessimism, The theory that the world is deteriorating or growing worse.
perfectibilism
Doctrine that humans capable of becoming perfect
perfectionism
Doctrine that moral perfection constitutes the highest value
personalism
Doctrine that humans possess spiritual freedom
pessimism
Doctrine that the universe is essentially evil
phenomenalism
Belief that phenomena are the only realities
physicalism
Belief that all phenomena reducible to verifiable assertions
physitheism
Attribution of physical form and attributes to deities
pluralism
Belief that reality consists of several kinds or entities
polytheism
Belief in multiple deities
positivism
Doctrine that that which is not observable is not knowable
pragmatism
Doctrine emphasizing practical value of philosophy
predestinarianism
Belief that what ever is to happen is already fixed
prescriptivism
Belief that moral edicts are merely orders with no truth value
primitivism
Doctrine that a simple and natural life is morally best
privatism
Attitude of avoiding involvement in outside interests
probabiliorism
Belief that when in doubt one must choose most likely answer
probabilism
Belief that knowledge is always probable but never absolute
psilanthropism
Denial of Christ's divinity
psychism
Belief in universal soul
psychomorphism
Doctrine that inanimate objects have human mentality
psychopannychism
Belief souls sleep from death to resurrection
psychotheism
Doctrine that God is a purely spiritual entity
pyrrhonism
Total or radical skepticism
quietism
Doctrine of enlightenment through mental tranquility
racism
Belief that race is the primary determinant of human capacities
rationalism
Belief that reason is the fundamental source of knowledge
realism
Doctrine that objects of cognition are real
reductionism
Belief that complex phenomena are reducible to simple ones
regalism
Doctrine of the monarch's supremacy in church affairs
representationalism
Doctrine that ideas rather than external objects are basis of knowledge
republicanism
Belief that a republic is the best form of government
resistentialism
Humorous theory that inanimate objects display malice towards humans, i.e., "spiteful behavior manifested by inanimate objects”
romanticism
Belief in sentimental feeling in artistic expression
sacerdotalism
Belief that priests are necessary mediators between God and mankind
sacramentarianism
Belief that sacraments have unusual properties
scientism
Belief that the methods of science are universally applicable
self-determinism
Doctrine that the actions of a self are determined by itself
sensationalism
Belief that ideas originate solely in sensation
sexism
Belief in systematic inequalities between the sexes
siderism
Belief that the stars influence human affairs
skepticism
Doctrine that true knowledge is always uncertain. Often directed at domains, such as morality (moral skepticism), religion (skepticism about the existence of God), or the nature of knowledge (skepticism of knowledge).[
socialism
Doctrine of centralized state control of wealth and property
solarism
Excessive use of solar myths in explaining mythology
solifidianism
Doctrine that faith alone will ensure salvation
solipsism
Theory that self-existence is the only certainty. Theory, which holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure.
somatism
Materialism, especially the belief that emotional and mental disorders are of physical origin and caused by bodily lesions.
spatialism
Doctrine that matter has only spatial, temporal and causal properties
spiritualism
Belief that nothing is real except the soul or spirit
stercoranism
Belief that the consecrated Eucharist is digested and evacuated
stoicism
Belief in indifference to pleasure or pain
subjectivism
Doctrine that all knowledge is subjective
substantialism
Belief that there is a real existence underlying phenomena
syndicalism
Doctrine of direct worker control of capital
synergism
Belief that human will and divine spirit cooperate in salvation. In general, may be defined as two or more agents working together to produce a result not obtainable by any of the agents independently.
terminism
Doctrine that there is a time limit for repentance
thanatism
Belief that the soul dies with the body. Term employed by Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) to express his doctrine of the mortality of annihilation of the human soul, the contrary of athanatism, immortality.
theism
Belief in the existence of God without special revelation
theocentrism
Belief that God is central fact of existence
theopantism
Belief that God is the only reality
theopsychism
Belief that the soul is of a divine nature
thnetopsychism
Belief that the soul dies with the body, to be reborn on day of judgement
titanism
Spirit of revolt or defiance against social conventions.
tolerationism
Doctrine of toleration of religious differences. Locke, Spinoza etc are the proponents.
totemism
Belief that a group has a special kinship with an object or animal
transcendentalism
Theory that emphasizes that which transcends perception, which is very simple idea. People, men and women equally, have knowledge about themselves and the world around them that "transcends" or goes beyond what they can see, hear, taste, touch or feel.
transmigrationism
Belief that soul passes into other body at death
trialism
Doctrine that humans have three separate essences (body, soul, spirit). 1) In philosophy was introduced by John Cottingham as an alternative interpretation of the mind-body dualism of Rene Descartes. Trialism keeps the two substances of mind and body, but introduces a third attribute, sensation, belonging to the union of mind and body. This allows animals, which do not have thought, to be regarded as having sensation and not as being mere automata.2) Christian trialism is the doctrine that humans have three separate essences (body, soul, spirit),
tritheism
Belief that the members of the Trinity are separate gods.
triumphalism
Belief in the superiority of one particular religious creed. The attitude or belief that a particular doctrine, religion, culture, or social system is superior to and should triumph over all others.
tuism
Theory that individuals have a second or other self. Thus all thought is addressed to a second person, or to one's future self as to a second person.
tutiorism
Doctrine that one should take the safer moral course
tychism
Theory that accepts role of pure chance, a thesis proposed by the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce.
ubiquitarianism
Belief that Christ is everywhere. Protestant sect was started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 December 1559, by Johannes Brenz, a Swabian
undulationism
Theory that light consists of waves
universalism
Belief in universal salvation, that all people will eventually be saved.
utilitarianism
Belief that utility of actions determines moral value. The ethical theory was proposed by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill that all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
vitalism
The doctrine that there is a vital force behind life, and that cannot be explained entirely as physical and chemical phenomena.
voluntarism
Belief that the will dominates the intellect, the fundamental principle of the individual or of the universe.
zoism
Doctrine that life originates from a single vital principle, or, reverence for animal life or a belief in magical animal powers.
zoomorphism
Conception of a god or man in animal form.
zootheism
Attribution of divine qualities to animals. Philosophies and beliefs may be seriated in four stages: The first stage is hecastotheism; in this stage extranatural or mysterious potencies are imputed to objects both animate and inanimate. The second stage is zootheism; within it the powers of animate forms are exaggerated and amplified into the realm of the supernal, and certain animals are deified.

Featured post

All my Books and all my Hubs

Sometimes I wonder , how is that each one of my friends happen to be so memorable a character? One among them, who is also a little mor...